The distribution of hydrogen from sources of production to use applications can take several different forms. Gas pipelines can bring the molecules on a continuous basis but are limited to the pipeline network. Hydrogen can be packaged in containers that are swapped full for empty at the use site. This is commonly referred to as “packaged gas”. Single walled cylinders are most common, although double walled cryogenic cylinders are also used in the industrial gas industry. The bulk distribution of gas can be either in the form of pressurized cylinders in the form of a tractor trailer or as double walled vacuum insulated trailers for cryogenic liquid hydrogen.
Pipelines are used to transport larger hydrogen quantities in an efficient way.
Gas moved to use applications in gas or liquid containers where the cylinder or pressure vessel is swapped out full for empty on site has unique challenges for handling and connection to application equipment.
Bulk transport (gas)
Tube trailers are a well known form of bulk gaseous hydrogen transport.
Bulk transport (liquid)
The same technologies used for Liquid storage are used to enable bulk transfer in tractor trailers.